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Prognostic impact of identifying etiology of prosthetic valve dysfunction with CT

Published:October 30, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcct.2021.10.008

      Abstract

      Background

      In patients with prosthetic heart valves (PHV), there are distinct treatment implications based on prosthetic valve dysfunction (PVD) etiology. We investigated whether evaluation for PVD etiology on computed tomography (CT) has prognostic value for adverse clinical outcomes.

      Methods

      Consecutive patients with suspected PVD that had a clinically indicated contrast chest CT and echocardiogram done within 1 year of each other were identified retrospectively from the Prosthetic Heart Valve CT Registry at the University of Minnesota. CTs and echocardiograms were assessed for potential PVD etiologies of pannus, structural valve degeneration (SVD) and thrombus, as per standard guidelines. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess association with a composite outcome of reoperation and all-cause mortality.

      Results

      132 patients (51.5% male, mean age 62.1 ​± ​19.3 years) with suspected PVD were included. There were 97 tissue valves, 31 mechanical valves and 4 transcatheter valves. The location of the valve was as follows: 72 aortic, 45 mitral, 8 tricuspid, and 7 pulmonic. A PVD etiology was diagnosed on CT in 80 (60.6%) patients, and on echocardiography in 45 (34.1%) patients, largely driven by a diagnosis of SVD on both modalities. Significant univariate predictors of the composite outcome included CT diagnosis of SVD (P ​< ​0.001), echocardiography diagnosis of SVD (P ​< ​0.001), degree of prosthetic stenosis (P ​< ​0.001) and degree of prosthetic regurgitation (P ​< ​0.001). On multivariable analyses adjusted for age, sex, left ventricular function, degree of prosthetic stenosis and degree of prosthetic regurgitation, CT diagnosis of SVD was significantly associated with the composite outcome (HR: 1.79, 1.09–2.95) whereas echocardiography diagnosis of SVD was not (HR: 1.56, 0.98–2.46).

      Conclusion

      In patients with suspected PVD, CT assessment of SVD had prognostic significance for hard outcomes. CT should be considered in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected PVD.

      Keywords

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