Research paper|Articles in Press

Tricuspid valve anatomy of massive to torrential tricuspid regurgitation: Computed tomography analysis

Published:January 25, 2023DOI:



      We aimed to comprehensively assess tricuspid valve anatomy and to determine factors associated with the more advanced stages beyond severe TR (i.e., massive to torrential).


      We retrospectively analyzed the pre-procedural cardiac CT images in patients with ≥severe TR using 3mensio software. The tricuspid valve annulus size, right-atrial and right-ventricular dimensions, tenting height, and leaflet angles were measured.


      A total of 103 patients were analyzed. The mean effective regurgitant orifice area was 61.7 ​± ​31.5 ​mm2, vena contracta was 13.1 ​± ​4.6 ​mm, and massive/torrential TR was observed in 62 patients. Compared to patients with severe TR, patients with massive/torrential TR had a larger tricuspid annulus area (18.6 ​± ​3.4 ​cm2 vs. 20.6 ​± ​5.3 ​cm2, p ​= ​0.037), right atrial short-axis diameter (66.1 ​± ​9.1 ​mm vs. 70.6 ​± ​9.9 ​mm, p ​= ​0.022), increased tenting height (8.8 ​± ​3.6 ​mm vs. 10.7 ​± ​3.7 ​mm, p ​= ​0.014), and greater leaflet angles (anterior leaflet: 22 ​± ​9° vs. 32 ​± ​13°, p ​< ​0.001; posterior leaflet: 22 ​± ​11° vs. 30 ​± ​11°, p ​= ​0.003). In the multivariable logistic regression model, the angle of anterior leaflet (OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14, p ​= ​0.004) and posterior leaflet (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.02–1.13, p ​= ​0.007) were associated with massive/torrential TR. Additionally, patients with massive/torrential TR more often had TR jets from non-central/non-anteroseptal commissure (34% vs. 76%, p ​< ​0.001). In the multivariable model, the greater angle of the leaflets and more elliptical annulus were associated with non-central/non-anteroseptal TR jets.


      Anterior and posterior leaflet angles are significant factors associated with massive/torrential TR. Furthermore, leaflet angles and ellipticity of the tricuspid valve are associated with the location of TR jets.

      Graphical abstract


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